One of the easiest and most enjoyable ways to expand your photographic horizons is to use your camera to explore the world on a very small scale. Close-up, or macro photography, can turn everyday objects into visually interesting images and bring a new dimension to your photography.
As in almost everything in the photographic universe, there is more than one way you can enter into the world of macro photography. Here we will discuss macro lenses, extension tubes, and close-up filters. In Part 2 of this series, we look at bellows, reversal rings, macro couplers, and focusing rails.
Macro lenses are designed to let the photographer focus on a subject at a distance that allows it to be reproduced, in the image circle, at the same or slightly smaller size. If the lens can reproduce the image at life size, it is said to be a 1:1 macro lens. If it reproduces it at half-size, it is a 1:2 macro lens. Flipping the ratio the other way, the Canon MP-E 65mm f/2.8 can operate at 5:1 and reproduce objects at 5x life size!
It is important to note that even though a lens has a very short minimum focus distance, it might not be a true macro lens. A lens designed specifically for macro photography generally has specialized characteristics that makes it different than other general-purpose lenses.
What makes a macro lens different from a "regular" lens? One characteristic of most macro lenses is that they have a flat focus field, versus the curved focus field of a non-macro lens. With a curved field lens, the center of an image is in focus while the edges are soft(er). This softness is usually compensated for by using aperture to adjust your depth of field, but the effect is magnified when photographing at very close distances and when photographing two-dimensional objects. The flat field of the macro lens is designed to allow the entire image to be in focus without increasing the depth of field.
Most major lens manufacturers offer several macro lens models. One important thing to remember is that you can achieve 1:1 reproduction at various focal lengths. You do not need a big telephoto macro lens to acquire 1:1 reproduction. Nikon, for instance, has macro lenses (Nikon calls them "micro") that reproduce at 1:1 in the following focal lengths: 40mm, 60mm, 85mm, 105mm, and 200mm. So, if they all produce images at 1:1, what is the difference, besides focal length and price? The difference is that a 200mm macro lens will allow you to achieve that 1:1 ratio with a greater distance between the front of the lens and subject, known as "working distance," than the 40mm or 60mm macro lens will. Just how far are we talking here? Well, a 60mm macro lens needs to be about 8" from the subject to get a 1:1 ratio, whereas a 180mm macro lens will achieve the same at about 19." Why does this matter? Well, if you are photographing a live subject, such as a small animal, getting less than a foot from it might alter its behavior or cause it to run, slither, crawl, or fly away. You might cast a shadow on the subject, as well. The larger working distance may keep your subject from being startled and help you get the shot you want. On the other hand, the shorter focal length macro lenses are generally less expensive, smaller, and lighter than their longer focal length brethren.
Should you switch a macro lens to a camera with a smaller-than-full-frame sensor, an APS-C sensor for instance, the working distance of the macro lens will remain constant, but the image produced will appear magnified as the cropped sensor is capturing a smaller region in the center of the image circle—a narrower field of view by about 1.5x. For example, that Nikon 200mm macro becomes, effectively, a 300mm macro lens on a Nikon DX camera and will show the same field of view in any photograph taken with an actual 300mm macro lens on a full-frame sensor camera. This effect could make it necessary to back away from the subject in order to properly fill your frame.
There is one more thing to mention when considering what focal length macro lens to purchase—as with non-macro lenses, the longer the focal length, the more "compression" you get in your image, as telephoto lenses will "flatten" the perspective between what is near and far in an image. A shorter focal length macro lens will allow your images to have more apparent depth, if that is the effect you are trying to achieve.
Macro lenses are arguably the best way to get immersed in the world of close-up photography; however, they are also the most expensive of the three options we are discussing here.
One way to enter the macro photography world without buying a macro lens is to use extension tubes. An extension tube is a hollow tube that you can mount between the camera and the lens. They are sold in different types of proprietary mounts to match your lens/camera manufacturer. Some even come with the necessary electrical connectors needed to transmit data between the lens and camera and control autofocus or aperture, while others are simply tubes with a lens/camera mount.
The extension tube serves to increase the distance between the lens and the sensor. This allows the lens to focus closer and, therefore, increase magnification, so you can use almost any lens for close-up photography. As with a macro lens, the longer the focal length, the greater the working distance you can achieve. You can even stack multiple extension tubes, or tubes of different lengths (measured in millimeters), to get even closer to your subject.
If you feel like doing math, you may figure out the increase in magnification gained by a tube: divide the distance provided by a specific tube by the focal length of the lens. If you crunch the numbers for a 60mm lens versus a 200mm lens, you will find that an extension tube will have the greatest effect on magnification on the shorter focal length lenses.
200mm lens with 1.0x magnification / 14mm extension tube
14mm / 200mm = 0.07x 1.0x + 0.07 = 1.07x total magnification
60mm lens with 1.0x magnification / 14mm extension tube
14mm / 60mm = 0.23x 1.0x + 0.23 = 1.23x total magnification
The downside to the extension tubes is that you are not converting your curved focal plane lens into a flat plane lens and you might also be losing some of the electronic functions of your lens, like autofocus or automatic aperture. Also, when using extension tubes, you cannot focus at "infinity," but this is not really a factor, as the reason you put the extension tube on your lens in the first place is so that you could focus on something very close to the front element of the lens.
The upside of extension tubes is that they are inexpensive, and you can use your favorite lens from your camera bag. Also, because extension tubes do not contain any optics, the optical performance of the lens is not degraded in any way.
A third way to explore macro photography, and another way to do it with a lens you already own, is through the use of close-up filters. Close-up filters screw onto the front of your lens, just like a protective UV filter, and allow closer focusing distances with a given lens. It is the equivalent of putting a magnifying glass in front of your lens. Like extension tubes, you can use multiple close-up filters to decrease the working distance to your subject.
Many lens and filter manufacturers make close-up filters in various sizes. To indicate their magnification, they are given +1, +2, +3, or +4 diopter-strength designations. To increase magnification, you can use multiple filters. For example, if you combine a +1 and +3 close-up filters, you will achieve the equivalent of a +4 filter.
The biggest benefit of the close-up filter system is that, not only can you use a lens you already own, you maintain the electronic functionality (maybe not autofocus) of the lens. The other benefit is that this is the least expensive way to enjoy macro photography. The close-up filter option is also the most compact option of the three; your filters are small and easy to carry.
The downside is that as you are adding more optics between your camera and subject, image quality can be degraded slightly by the close-up filters.
More Options for Macro
The three macro solutions described above are the more "mainstream" methods to achieve close-up photographs of your subject. But, before you pursue one of those options, be aware that there are more tools and accessories that make macro photography even more fun, creative, and powerful.
In Part Two of this article, we’ll look at some other methods for achieving macro photography, as well as offer some final thoughts on close-up photography.
Cost, convenience, size, weight, portability, complexity, versatility, and final photographic result will all factor into your purchase decision. If you have questions of your own, please post them in the Comments section, below. And, if you want to learn more about capturing close-up images check out the rest of Macro Photography Week.
I saw this lens for sale in B&H used department and I had to snap it up: Canon Macro Photo Lens 20mm f/3.5
Nice moves, Ralph!
I started doing jewlewry photography by assisting on using 8x10 view cameras with what were high grade 16 mm cine lenses. With a full belloes extension and this tiny lens mouted on a Kodak lens board the jewlery was magnified 5 to 10 time on ths sheet film. Had to do this at night when the trucks did not bounce the foundation. I am old school but I have several Macro type lenses for my DX Nikon Cameras. I have a manual focus 105 that can get to better than 1:1. I have the 85 mm DX Macro that is very sharp as a regular camera lens, even wid open. Lens reversing rings work but they seem to accentuate the chromatic aberation at the cormers. Fifty years of Nikon use and still going strong !
Nothing wrong with "old school!"
Thanks for reading and commenting!
Jag har Nikon D610 FX format och Nikkor lens 24-120mm f / 4 FX men are who you think is the best macro lens for my camera or 1: 1. (FX)?
Thank you in advance.
The "best" depends on your needs and your budget. All of the Nikon macro lenses get good reviews and they do 1:1 reproductions.
If you are on a budget, do not hesitate to look at older/used lenses as a great option as there are many superb "vintage" macro lenses that will work on your D610.
Are the lenses used with extension tubes all fixed lenses. Have OLY EM1 with 12mm/f2.0;- 12-50mmZoom;- 40-150mmZoom---all MZuiko, can they be used w/ extension tube(s)?
You can certainly use extension tubes with zoom lenses. One of the benefits of extension tubes is the ability to use lenses you already own to do macro photography. This is, obviously, much more economical than purchasing an expensive prime dedicated macro lens.
Good luck with your shots and have fun!
can you use close up filters on a macro lens?
Yes, you can certainly use close-up filters on a macro lens for shortening the minimum focus distance and achieving an even greater magnification. There are dozens of combinations of lenses/accessories that can help bridge your artistic vision with your macro photography!
Thanks for the question and thanks for reading Explora!
Enjoyed the article looking forward to future article.
Part Two is alread up...click here!
Enjoy and thank you!
Here are methods on Macro photography that I presented to our photography club, now with a web link showing the presentation. If you wish, share this with your email followers. Many of the items used were purchased at B&H!
Thanks for the link, Dino! ....and for reading Explora...and for shopping at B&H!
Great review. I'm still deciding on how I'm going to initially engage macro photography. Am looking forward to your Part Two.
Part Two is alread up...click here!
Thanks for reading Explora!
At the beginning of the article, an explanation is given for "life size", "1X", "5X", etc. Is this multiplier for the resulting image size on the sensor or film? Obviously, when an image is printed it is way bigger than the captured image on the film or sensor.
This should be explained more fully.
You are correct. The multiplier refers to the projection of the item on the sensor or film.
With any reproduction, regardless of whether it be on a computer screen, television, printer, stadium JumboTron™, or copier, you can make many things larger than life-sized without the use of a macro lens.
Thank you for reading B&H Explora!
There actually four ways to do macro. Check out the truly amazing macro capabilitie of the Olympus TG-3 and you will never consider buying all the macro stufff that you need for you SLR of DSLR. I could go into detail about this amazing little gem of a camera, but better to check it out on the Olympus web site.
There are actually a bunch of ways to do macro photography! Feel free to click on Part 2 of this article.
The Olympus TG-3 definitely has some cool macro capabilites! Thanks for mentioning it and thanks for reading Explora!
Good introductory article.
In discussing the crop sensor, you state, "the image produced will appear magnified". The magnification of a lens remains the same regardless of the sensor on which its image is projected. What happens with sensors of different sizes is that the image area captured is different (larger or smaller), but at the same magnification.
On APS-C, a 1:1 macro lens can capture a life-size image of a 16x24 mm area (or "subject"). On full-frame, a 1:1 macro lens can capture a life-size image of a 24x36 mm area. If these images are displayed at equal sizes, then yes, the image of a 16x24 mm area is magnified more in the crop sensor's image, and the full-frame image shows more of the surroundings. The crop image is like zooming into the full-frame image.
This is just to point out that "magnification" is used in two different ways: the magnification of which a lens is capable, which is an optical property independent of sensor; and the magnification at which a final image is viewed (as in viewing the same image on a 3-inch monitor versus a 30-inch monitor).
Thank you for your comments! We had a few discussions here at B&H on how to explain the difference between APS-C and full-frame when it comes to macro. Lots of semantics and trap doors. We tried to provide the information in a simple, non-confusing, and non-intimidating manner.
Your explanation is very good, as well. Thanks for sharing!
In the regard to sensor size, APS-C vs full frame, would there be any advantage at all of using one over the other for macro-photography? I normally use a full frame Canon 5D.